How to increase the durability of lithium ion batteries
The prevalence of rechargeable Lithium-ion and Lithium ion-polymer batteries is warranted. Lithium ion batteries are more environmentally friendly and easier to charge and maintain than other rechargeable battery kinds. In addition, they feature a superior energy density, greater cell voltage, reduced self-discharge, and excellent cycle life. Due to its high voltage (2.9 V to 4.2 V), a single cell can power a variety of portable devices. This simplifies the design of a product.
There may be disputes on which component of a battery is more essential for a particular application. Too much emphasis has been placed on increasing the capacity of lithium-ion batteries in the pursuit of smaller, longer-lasting devices. Occasionally, a battery's capacity is less critical than its lifespan, number of charge cycles, or safety features.
Let's begin by discussing what a lithium-ion battery is and how it operates. Then, we will discuss the impact of the battery charger on the battery's lifespan. Lithium is among the lightest, most reactive metals with the highest electrochemical potential. Instead of lithium metal, lithium-ion batteries employ lithium ions. These ions flow between the battery's cathode and anode as the battery is charged and discharged.
How many lithium-ion batteries be made to live longer?
1. Batteries have a shorter lifespan when charged in extremely hot or cold temperatures
The optimal charging temperature for batteries is between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. When the battery is in operation, it frequently becomes hot. Since virtually all two-wheeler battery packs are enclosed and lack cooling, the temperature of the battery will increase as it is used. Therefore, do not immediately attach it after using the battery. If you wait around one hour before charging the battery, its temperature will be at room temperature. If the air conditioner is on, the battery can attain the optimal charging temperature range of 25 to 30 degrees Celsius.
2. Choose the appropriate method to halt the charge
A charger with limited charge-current termination (C/10 or C/x) can lengthen the life of a battery by preventing it from being fully charged. Stopping the charge cycle when the current falls to C/5, for instance, is equivalent to reducing the float voltage to 4.1 V. In both instances, the battery is only charged to roughly 85% of its capacity, which is a significant factor in determining its lifespan.
3. Maintain the battery at a normal temperature
To extend the lithium-ion battery battery's life, it must be protected from direct sunlight and high temperatures. When the battery is not being charged, maintain a temperature between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. Nearly every component of a battery can degrade more rapidly at severe temperatures. If your vehicle's battery is not detachable, park it in the shade and avoid direct sunshine and extreme temperatures. If you do not intend to drive the vehicle frequently, it is advisable to keep the SOC at or below 50 percent. Utilizing this strategy will extend the battery's life.
4. Less charge voltage makes batteries live longer
For every 0.10V/cell decline in peak charge voltage, the number of times lithium-ion batteries can be recharged is said to increase by fourfold. A lithium-ion battery will normally survive between 300 and 500 cycles when charged to 4.20V/cell. If the battery is only charged to 4.10V/cell, its lifespan can be increased to 600–1,000 cycles; 4.0V/cell should provide 1,200–2,000 cycles, and 3.90V/cell should provide 2,400–4,000 cycles. A lower peak charge voltage is detrimental since it reduces the capacity of the battery. However, battery longevity is frequently more significant than charging capability.
5. Batteries dislike being overfilled or underfilled
In an ideal case, lithium-ion batteries should never be charged over 80 percent or discharged below 20 percent, as doing so stresses and damages them. If you wish to determine how long a completely charged battery will last, you must fully charge it. However, you should remove the gadget from the charger after the battery reaches 100 percent.
6. Use rapid charging when necessary
Rapidly recharging a lithium-ion battery is advantageous since it enables the gadget, vehicle, or other objects to resume operation immediately. But it should only be used when all other options have been exhausted. However, rapid charging is detrimental to the battery, and doing it repeatedly may shorten its lifespan.